top of page

Glossary of Terms

This glossary provides detailed definitions for terms you or your customers may be unfamiliar with.


 | # |  A |  B |  C |  D |  E |  F |  G |  H |  I |  J | K  |  L |  M |  N |  O |  P |  Q |  R |  S |  T |  U |  V |  W | X |  Y | Z | 

To search for a term press Ctrl+F on your keyboard.  Download the full Glossary of Terms (PDF)


# (number)

1x1 Rib KnitA rib knit is produced using a style of knitting pattern which yields a distinct vertically ridged pattern known as ribbing. A 1x1 Rib knit is created when the rows of the "knit" and "purl" stitch are identical.

2-Way ZipperA zipper with two zipper pulls so the garment can be unzipped from either direction.

2x1 Rib KnitA rib knit is produced using a style of knitting pattern which yields a distinct vertically ridged pattern known as ribbing. A 2x1 Rib knit is created when there are two rows a "knit" stitch and one row of a "purl" stitch.

2-Needle StitchingSee Double-Needle Stitching

4-Needle StitchingA finish commonly used on a sleeve or bottom hem that uses four needles to create parallel rows of visible stitching, giving the garment a cleaner, more finished look, as well as adding durability.

50/5050-percent cotton/50-percent polyester fabric; also referred to as "poly/cotton".

Back to Top


Air Jet YarnA spinning technology which spins a single type of yarn or with a blend of filament yarns which provide for a virtually "pill free" fabric

Allen Solley PlacketA one-piece placket that's hidden after being sewn. This process utilizes the existing fabric for the outside placket face.

ANSIThe American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization that promotes standards for industry and government. Most often refers to safety colors.

Anti-BacterialA finish or treatment that inhibits the growth of bacteria.

Anti-MicrobialA term used for a garment that is able to resist, either naturally or chemically, the effects of microbial secretions put off by the human body, resisting odor and increasing garment life.

Anti-Pill FinishA treatment applied to the fabric primarily to resist the formation of little balls on the fabric's surface due to abrasion during wear. See Pilling.

Back to Top


Baby Pique KnitA knitting method that creates a fine, small textured surface that appears similar to a very small waffle weave. Also see Pique Knit.

Back YokeA piece of fabric that connects the back of a garment to the shoulders. This allows the garment to lay flat and drape nicely.

Banded Self CollarA type of collar made of the same material as the shirt. The two basic kinds of this collar are the simulated, made of two pieces, or the true, made of four pieces.

BartacksA specialized sewing stitch designed to provide immense tensile strength to a seam. Commonly used at stress points.

Basket weaveA variation of the plain weave in which two or more threads are woven side by side to resemble a "basket" look. Fabrics have a loose construction and loose appearance.

BindingA strip of material sewn or attached over or along the edge of something for protection, reinforcement or ornamentation.

BiowashAlso known as bio-polishing or enzyme treatment. This is a chemical process to remove short fibers from fabrics so that the finished fabrics can have a cleaner surface. The process weakens the fibers so that they are more readily to break off, thus improve the pilling resistance but at the same time reduce the bursting strength of the fabric. Since the treatment is done in an acidic condition and at high temperature, noticeable color change will be unavoidable so usually this process is done before dyeing.

Birdseye JacquardA small geometric pattern with a center dot knit into the fabric.

Blanket StitchA decorative stitch often used to finish an unhemmed blanket. The stitch can be seen on both sides of the blanket or other garment.

BlanksUndecorated items or apparel; also refers to "blank" goods.

BlendA yarn or a fabric that is made up of more than one type of fiber.

Blind stitchStitching that is not easily seen or noticed. Often used in hems.

Bonded FleeceMultiple layers of fleece are bonded together with an adhesive, resin, foam or fusible membrane to form a higher functioning garment.

BondingThe technique of permanently joining together two fabrics or layers of fabrics together by a bonding agent into one unit.

Box PleatA single, uniform fold in the center back of a garment to allow for more room and comfort.

Boy shortWomen's underwear characterized by its full-back coverage and its similarity to men's knit boxer shorts.

BreathabilityThe movement of water or water vapor from one side of the fabric to the other, caused by capillary action, wicking, chemical or electrostatic action.

BrimThe projecting edge of a hat.

BroadclothA close plain-weave fabric made of cotton, rayon or a blend of cotton or rayon with polyester.

BrushedA finishing process for knit or woven fabrics in which brushes or other abrading devices are used to raise a nap on fabrics or create a novelty surface texture.

BuckramStiff fabric used to give shape and form to items like caps, belts, etc. Also used to stabilize embroidery edges.

Button-Down CollarFound on many men's woven dress shirting's, where the collar's wings can be buttoned to the front of the shirt, minimizing the spread between the wings.

Button-Through Sleeve PlacketA small placket located near the end of the sleeve, by the cuff, which contains a single button closure.

Back to Top


CashmereA luxury fiber obtained from the soft fleecy undergrowth of the cashmere goat

Chain stitchA machine stitch forming a chain on the underside of the fabric.

ChambrayA plain woven fabric that can be made from silk or manufactured fibers, but is most commonly cotton. It incorporates a colored warp and white filling yarns.

Chino CottonA sturdy, medium weight twill cotton fabric used for uniforms and sometimes work or sports clothes.

Clean-Finished PlacketTypically the interfacings of plackets are raw or edged, which means they can look ragged or uneven, particularly on light-colored shirts. By cutting the interfacing in a rectangle, turning the edges under and fusing them in place, there is a straight placket with no raw edges. All that shows inside the shirt is the smooth edge.

ClimaCool®Exclusive adidas technology providing Sweat and heat management through ventilation and moisture management

ClimaLite®Exclusive adidas technology. Light, breathable fabrics that conduct heat and sweat away from the body to keep the wearer comfortable and dry in warm conditions.

ClimaProof®Exclusive adidas technology. A lightweight, breathable shell that keeps wind, rain and snow out while allowing heat and sweat to escape through evaporation. CLIMAPROOF® locks out energy sapping weather extremes so you stay dry and comfortable in even the harshest conditions. Don't just suffer through the wind, snow or rain, bend the elements to your will with the help of three CLIMAPROOF® elements for apparel: ClimaProof® Wind, ClimaProof® Rain and ClimaProof® Storm.

ClimaWarm®Exclusive adidas technology offering lightweight, breathable insulation that keeps you dry and comfortable in cold weather conditions by using densely woven synthetic fibers to trap warm air close to the skin. While these fibers are dense enough to trap air, they are spaced far enough apart to easily allow heat-sapping sweat to escape through evaporation.

CollarThe upright or turned-over neckband of a coat, jacket or shirt.

CollaretteA trim around the neck of a t'shirt or sweatshirt

Color BlockMerchandising and/or cutting term whereby a certain type or block of colors ends up in the same place every time on the finished garment.

ColorfastA dyed fabric's ability to resist fading due to washing, exposure to sunlight and other environmental conditions.

Combed/Combed CottonA process by which the short fibers of a yarn are removed and the remaining longer fibers are arranged in parallel order for a high quality yarn with excellent strength, fineness and uniformity.

CompactingProcess that compacts the space between fabric fiber pockets. This will prevent cotton shrinkage.

Comprehension StrapsStraps which securely hold the inner contents of a bag.

Compression MoldedA solid, pre-formed molded panel that is created using compression.

Cool & Dry®Yupoong moisture management technology

Cool KnitA variation of pique that results in a different texture and surface appearance. It resembles a "waffle" pattern.

Cool-Crown™A mesh liner used inside Adams Headwear which is designed to promote cooling and minimize staining.

Coolmax® ExtremeWicking performance fabric that moves moisture away from the skin, keeping people cool and comfortably dry all day long

Cord locksA stopper or toggle on a draw cord that keeps the cord from retracting into the garment.

CorduroyA cut filling pile cloth with narrow to wide ribs. Usually made of cotton, but can be found in polyester and other synthetic blends.

CottonSoft vegetable fiber obtained from the seedpod of the cotton plant.

Cotton SheetingPlain-weave cotton fabric, usually prelaundered, used for fashion sportswear. It's wrinkled to create crinkle cotton.

Cover seamedTwo needles are used, to overlap the threads underneath, reinforcing the seams with a smooth layer of threads. Provides a look similar to double needle stitching.

Crew CollarA rounded, ribbed collar cut loose to the neck.

Crinkle CottonCotton that is given a crinkled, lightly wrinkled or pleated appearance through chemical treatment or mechanical means. The treatment gives added texture to the garment.

Crop TopA shirt style made to expose the midriff.

CrownThe upper-most part of the cap of a hat that is sewn to either a hatband, brim or sweat band.

Cross GrainThe term "cross-grain" in the US refers to the direction perpendicular to the length-of-grain (selvage edges), not the diagonal of the fabric

Back to Top


DenierA system of measuring the weight of a continuous filament fiber. The lower the number, the finer the fiber; the higher the number, the heavier the fiber.

DenimA cotton or blended fabric with right- or left-hand twill construction. The wrap is usually dyed blue with a white filing.

DobbyA decorative weave, usually geometric, that is woven into the fabric. Standard dobby fabrics are usually flat and relatively fine or sheer.

Double Dry®Exclusive Champion technology that wicks perspiration for a dry-all-day feel. Disperses moisture for faster drying. Keeps body temperatures lower so you can play in cool comfort

Double KnitA circular knit fabric knitted via double stitch on a double needle frame to provide a double thickness.

Double-Needle StitchingA finish commonly used on a sleeve or bottom hem that uses two needles to create parallel rows of visible stitching, giving the garment a cleaner, more finished look, as well as adding durability.

DownThe soft, fluffy under feathers of ducks and geese. Services as an excellent thermal insulator and padding for bedding, sleeping bags and outerwear.

Draw cordA cord or ribbon run through a hem or casing, pulled to tighten or close an opening.

Dri-Fast Advantage™Exclusive Devon & Jones technology providing advanced moisture management to keep you dry, cool and comfortable. It even blocks the sun's harmful rays.

Dri-Fast™Exclusive Devon & Jones technology that provides moisture management to keep you dry, cool and comfortable.

Drop TailA design feature found in upscale products where the back of the garment is longer than the front for the purpose of keeping the shirt tucked in. Sometimes referred to as an "elongated" back or extended tail.

Drop-NeedleA knit fabric characterized by vertical lines within the cloth. Manufactured by dropping a needle from the knitting cylinder.

DuPont™ Teflon®Trademark of DuPont. Stain resistant, water repellent finish applied to textiles. This treatment gives the fabric a protective coating without affecting any of the fabrics inherent properties.

Dura-Pearl™Pearlized type button trademarked by Broder Bros., Co.

Dyed-To-Match (DTM)A term which characterizes buttons or trims that are the same color as the garment onto which they are sewn.

Back to Top


Egyptian CottonCultivated in Egypt's Nile River Valley, this cotton is regarded as one of the finest cotton in the world. The particular growing season gives the cotton the longest and strongest fibers, making it ideal for weaving into smooth, strong yarn. Commonly used in high-end towels and linens.

End-On-EndA weave pattern in which the warp yarn (the yard running lengthwise) alternates between colors.

Enzyme-WashWashing process that uses a cellulose-based solution to obtain garments that appear to have been stonewashed or acid washed. The solution physically degrades the surface of the cotton fiber. The appearance and hand of the garment are identical to stonewashed and acid washed garments. However, the fabric surface is not damaged to the extent of a stonewashed or acid washed garment.

ErgonomicDesign elements incorporated into a garment to improve the design by enhancing the wearer's comfort, performance or health.

Etched Tone ButtonsA horn tone button with an etched design pattern.

Extended TailA longer back than front for the purpose of keeping the shirt tucked in. Also referred to as Drop Tail.

EyeletsSmall holes or perforations made in a series to allow for breathability. Finished with either stitching or brass grommets.

Back to Top


Fabric MemoryA fabrics ability to return to its original dimensions after being stretched out of shape.

Face YarnThe exterior yarn of a fabric.

Flat Collar/CuffsA single ply fabric with a finished edge that is used for collars and cuffs on sport shirts and short sleeve garments. Also known as welt.

FleeceA fabric identified by a soft napped interior and a smooth exterior. Commonly used in sweats.

Flexfit®A Yupoong patented technology that weaves spandex into the sweatband and throughout the entire crown to allow easy stretching while retaining the original shape.

Full CutRefers to a garment's fit as being generous and roomy.

Fused LiningA lining that is fused to the two outer plies with solvent, heat and pressure. It's used to stabilize or stiffen parts of a garment, such as a pocket or collar.

Back to Top


Garment DyedA dyeing process that occurs after the garment is assembled.

Garment WashProcess of industrially washing garments after they have been manufactured to remove sizing; it also softens and pre-shrinks.

Garment WashedA wash process where softeners are added to finished garments to help the cotton fibers relax. The result is a fabric with a thicker appearance, reduced shrinkage and a softer hand.

GrommetAn eyelet of firm material to strengthen or protect an opening.

GrosgrainA firm, closely woven fabric with narrow horizontal stripes. Commonly used for ribbons, neckties and trimmings.

GussetTriangular inserts in sleeve seams to widen and strengthen.

Back to Top


HandQuality or characteristic of fabrics perceived by sense of touch--softness, firmness or drape.

HeavyweightFabric heavier than 10 ounces per linear yard, equal to 1.60 yield. Standard weight in the industry is 8 ounces (2.0 yield) or lighter.

HenleyShirt featuring a banded neck and button placket; may be ribbed.

HerringboneA chevron or zigzag decorative pattern knit into fabric. Commonly used in golf shirts and twill shirts.

High CottonRefers to fabrics woven with a relatively high thread count, resulting in a dense, tight fabric.

High-ProfileA term used for a cap or hat silhouette that is less fitted to the head with a high slope. Usually structured with buckram or other stiff fabric lining.

Horn-Style ButtonsButtons made to resemble natural horn.

Back to Top


Interlock KnitA double knit fabric with a smooth finish on face and back of fabric. The process creates a luxurious fabric with increased strength, enhanced durability.

Back to Top


Jacquard KnitOften an intricate pattern knit directly into the fabric during the manufacturing process. Typically, two or more colors are used.

Jersey KnitThe consistent interloping of yarns to produce a fabric with a flat, smooth face and a more textured, but uniform back.

Johnny CollarA type of neckline that forms a "Y" at the front of the neck. Commonly used in women's sportswear.

Back to Top


Lap ShoulderAn infant's shirt where the back panel or body parts overlap the front panel at the neckline where the set-in sleeves start, making it easier to slip on and off.

LisleHigh-quality cotton yarn made by plying yarns spun from long, combed staple.

Locker LoopA looped piece of fabric in the neck of a garment for the convenience of hanging the garment on a hook. Can also be located at the center of the back yoke on the inside or outside of a garment.

Locker PatchA semi-oval panel sewn into the inside back portion of a garment, just under the collar seam to reinforce the garment and minimize stretching when hung on a hook. The patch also allows for the garment tag or label to be sewn below the neckline to help prevent irritation.

LogoAn artistic interpretation of a company's sign or symbol. These figures can be copyrighted or trademarked. Permission is needed for duplication.

Low-ProfileA term used for a cap or hat silhouette that is more closely fitted to the head. Can be either structured or unstructured.

Lycra® FiberINVISTA's trademark for a synthetic fabric material with the elastic properties of spandex.

Lyocellmanufactured fiber made of regenerated cellulose (plant fiber). Lyocell has a similar hand and drape to rayon, but is stronger and more durable. It has a subtle luster and takes color well, and has good wrinkle-resistant qualities. It also absorbs moisture well.

Back to Top


MèlangeA mix of different colors of yarns knit together to create a heathered effect.

MercerizedA process that eliminates all of the small "hairs" of yarn, which adds to its luster. This yarn is then additionally run through a caustic solution, which further smoothes and adds gloss to the yarn surface by burning off additional fabric hairs.

MeshA type of fabric characterized by its net-like open appearance and the spaces between the yarns. Mesh is available in a variety of constructions, including woven's, knits, laces or crocheted fabrics.

MicrofiberTightly woven fabric from a very fine polyester thread, usually with a sueded finish for a soft feel. Generally lightweight, resilient, resist wrinkling and are inherently water repellent and wind resistant due to its construction.

Micro fleeceCrafted from ultra-fine yarn, this lightweight, high-density fleece is brushed less than a regular fleece garment for a tight look, excellent softness and warmth. 100% polyester micro fleece.

Micro stripeAn ultra-fine stripe knit into the fabric

Micro suedeA synthetic fabric napped on one side to resemble suede leather. Short, close nap gives a soft, smooth hand.

Mid-ProfileA term used for a cap or hat silhouette that is slightly fitted to the head. Can be either structured or unstructured.

Mock Turtlenecka shortened version of the turtleneck where the neck of the garment does not fold over.

Moisture-Wickingmoisture management fabrics which transport moisture away from the body, keeping the wearer cool and dry

Back to Top


NapA fuzzy, fur-like feel created when fiber ends extend from the basic fabric structure to the fabric surface. The fabric can be napped on one or both sides.

Non-IronA term characterizing fabric that has been chemically treated to resist wrinkles, eliminating the need for ironing.

NuBlend™ FleeceA combined knitting and spinning process, with fabric made of 50% cotton and 50% polyester, developed by Jerzees® with an anti-pilling surface.

NylonA synthetic fiber with high strength and abrasion resistance, low absorbency and good elasticity.

Back to Top


One-Ply YarnOne strand of thread is used to form the yarn that is woven into terry loops.

Open-End YarnA yarn produced by using a combing roll + rotor.

OttomanA tightly woven, horizontal raised rib textured knit.

Ounces Per Square YardA measurement of fabric weight, a weight that customers usually ask for when making a comparison to competitive brands.

Over-DyedA process in which yarn-dyed fabrics or piece-dyed garments are put through an additional dye color to create unique colors.

OxfordA fine, lightweight woven cotton or cotton blend fabric with a 2x1 basket weave variation. Typically used for dress shirts.

Back to Top


PackableA feature that allows for the garment to be folded into a separate or attached pocket.

PashminaFabric woven from the downy fibers from goats of the mountainous state of Jammu + Kashmir. Also known as Cashmere.

Patch PocketA pocket attached to the outside of a garment.

PeachedA soft hand usually obtained by sanding the fabric lightly. Can be achieved with chemical or laundry abrasion.

Pearlized ButtonsButtons that have a pearl-colored hue.

Peruvian Pima CottonPeruvian Pima Cotton is often referred to as the "cashmere of cotton" because it is the softest, smoothest, "silkiest" fabric you can wear. Shrinkage standard for Peruvian Pima fabrics is a maximum of 5 x 5 if the garment is washed following directions on the label.

PFDPrepared for Dye. Indicates that the garment has been specifically prepared for the garment-dyeing process.

Piece-DyedA dyeing process that occurs when the fabric is in yardage form after it has been knitted or woven, but before the garment is assembled.

Pigment-DyedA type of dye process used to create a distressed or washed look that results in soft, muted tones and a soft hand.

PillingA tangled ball of fibers that appears on the surface of a fabric as a result of wear or continued friction or rubbing on the surface of the fabric. See Anti-Pill Finish.

Pima CottonA term applied to extra-long staple cotton grown in the U.S., Peru, Israel and Australia. It can only be grown in select areas where the cotton is fully irrigated and benefits from a longer growing season for a softer, stronger cotton than standard cotton.

Pinpoint OxfordTwo fine yarns that are wrapped together for a fine and luxurious hand.

Pique KnitA knitting method that creates a fine textured surface that appears similar to a waffle weave. Commonly used for polo shirts.

PlacketThe part of a shirt or jacket where the garment fastens or buttons together.

PlyTwo or more yarns that have been twisted together.

Polar FleeceKnitted using 100% fine denier polyester yarns. The pile is napped on the front and back to promote a very soft hand with exceptional loft. This is a fine denier knit that also allows the fabric to dry quickly.

PolyesterA strong, durable synthetic fabric with high strength and excellent resiliency. Low moisture absorbency allows the fabric to dry quickly.

Poly-FilledA warm polyester lining found in the body or sleeves of outerwear garments. It has more loft than a regular nylon lining.

PolynosicA type of microfiber that is a blend of polyester and rayon fibers and features similar characteristics to cotton and silk with excellent luster, a soft finish, and very little shrinkage.

PolypropyleneA hard fabric made from a plastic polymer of propylene.

Polyurethane Coating (PU Coating)A finish commonly used in winter jackets, rainwear and wind wear to offer high performance water resistance, while maintaining the garment's breathability.

PoplinA medium-to-heavyweight unbalanced plain weave. It is a spun yarn fabric that is usually piece dyed. Made by weaving one weft (vertical) yarn over and under each warp (horizontal) yarn, alternating each row. The filling is cylindrical. Two or three times as many warp as weft per inch.

PreshrunkPre-shrinking is not about pre-washing the fabric. It is a process where the bolted, uncut fabric is run through rollers containing tiny nubs that press the fabric over the nubs, creating grooves which condense it. This puckered shrinking effect then allows for real shrinking to occur when washed, without it being detected. Therefore, the fabric - not the shirt - is pre-shrunk before it is even cut and sewn.

Princess SeamsShaped seams which can be found on the front or back of a garment. They are usually used specifically in women's fashion since princess seams are designed to make a garment fit smoothly and snugly.

PVCA polyurethane coating that is added to make garments water resistant.

Back to Top


Quarter-TurnedAn additional manufacturing process where the mill rotates 1/4 of a turn to put a crease on the side of the product rather then the front of the product.

QuiltingA fabric construction in which a layer of down or fiberfill is placed between two layers of fabric, and then held in place by stitching or sealing in a consistent, all-over pattern.

Back to Top


Racer backT-shaped back of a tank, dress or sports bra.

Raglan SleeveAn athletic cut sleeve set with a diagonal seam from the neck to the underarm. Offers more freedom of movement in comparison with set-in sleeves.

RayonA manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose, derived from wood pulp, cotton linters or other vegetable matter, with a soft hand. Frequently used for shirts and pants.

Reverse-PlacketWhen the buttons on a placket are on the opposite side from a men's garment. Commonly done on women's styles.

Rib KnitA textured knit that has the appearance of vertical lines. It is highly elastic and retains its shape. Commonly used for sleeve and neck bands.

RingerA shirt featuring ribbed crew neck and sleeve bands in a contrasting color.

Ring spunYarn made by continuously twisting and thinning a rope of cotton fibers. The twisting makes the short hairs of cotton stand out, resulting in a stronger yarn with a significantly softer hand.

Rip-Stop NylonA very fine woven fabric, often nylon, with coarse, strong yarns spaced at intervals forming a box so that tears will not spread.

Back to Top


Sand WashedA process in which the fabric is washed with very fine lava rocks or rubber/silicon balls, resulting in a softer fabric with a relaxed look and reduced shrinkage.

Sandwich Hat/BillA hat where there is contrasting trim between the upper and lower part of the visor or bill.

Scoop NeckCharacterized by a deep, rounded neckline that is significantly deeper than normal necklines. Typically found on women's shirts.

Sculpted HemA hem that is softly rounded for fashion detail and untucked wear.

Seam SealedThe process of treating the stitch holes and seams of a garment to prevent leaking and to ensure full waterproof integrity.

Seamless CollarA collar that is knit in a circle. There are no joining seams on the collar, found in better-made t-shirts.

Self-Fabric CollarA collar that is constructed from the same material as the body of the garment.

Self-Fabric SweatbandRefers to a panel of fabric at the front of a cap that is constructed from the same fabric as the crown of the cap.

SergeAn overcastting technique done on the cut edge of the fabric to prevent unraveling.

Set-In SleeveMost common style of sleeve, which is is sewn into the shoulder, as opposed to the neck.

ShearedRefers to the towel's finish. A sheared surface is created clipping the loops on one side of the towel. Sheared terry is often referred to as having a velour finish. The shearing process creates a plush and smooth finish, which is great for printing or embroidery. The weight of the fabric has a big impact on the overall appearance of the shear. A heavier weight fabric enhances the velour appearance because there is more material to shear.

SheetingA plain-weave cotton fabric with even or close to even thread counts in the warp and weft.

Sherpa FleeceA knit terry fabric that has been brushed and washed to raise the fibers for a fluffy, plush feel. The thick terry loops stay soft and absorbent over time.

ShoddyClippings of extra fabric from the production of garments is gathered, sorted by color, then processed into a pulpy material called shoddy. This material is then re-spun into yarn and used to create recycled apparel.

Shoulder-To-Shoulder TapingShoulder seams, as well as neck seam are covered by tape or binding. This reinforces shoulder and neck seams, and reduces separation of the seams.

Side VentsSlits found at the bottom of side seams, used for fashion detailing, as well as comfort and ease of movement.

Side seamSeams that join the front and back together. If a shirt does not have side seams, it is tubular.

SilkA natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in the construction of its cocoon. The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fiber's triangular, prism-like structure, which allows silk fabric to refract incoming light at different angles. Silk is recognized for its fine hand and fluid drape.

Single-NeedleA stitch, requiring a single needle and thread, characterized by its straight-line pathway. A single-needle seam has been finished with a visible row of stitching, single needle, for additional reinforcement and fashion.

Slash PocketsA pocket in a garment to which access is provided by a vertical or diagonal slit in the outside of the garment.

Slub YarnA yarn of any fiber which is irregular in diameter and characterized by contrasting fat and thin areas along the length of the yarn. The effect may be purposely created to enhance a woven or knitted material, or may occur in error as a yarn flaw.

SmoketoneButtons that simulate a smokey grey appearance.

Soft ShellThe term Soft Shell is increasingly used to describe garments that combine partial water resistance with partial wind breaking ability. Soft shell fabrics come in numerous varieties with many garments offering a combination, such as a wicking layer. In many cases insulation is combined in an attempt to replace several layers with a single highly flexible one.

Soil Release FinishA fabric treatment that helps a garment release stains in the wash.

SpandexA manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking and will still recover to its original length.

Stain ResistanceA fiber or fabric property of resisting spots and stains. Commonly used for industrial or restaurant uniforms.

StapleThe actual length of a cotton fiber.

StonewashedA finishing process that creates a distressed appearance, including a softer texture, puckering at the seams and slight wrinkling. Garments are tumbled together with stones (usually pumice stones) in larger washers. This process is usually applied to indigo-dyed denim garments. Different sizes of stones can be used and length of washing time can be varied to achieve different effects.

Storm FlapA piece of fabric that covers and protects an opening, usually a zipper, on an item of clothing. It is designed to add another barrier on more vulnerable parts of the clothing to protect against wind and moisture.

StructuredA headwear term referring to a cap with buckram added to the crown for structure.

Sublimation TransferMethod of subliming a dye pattern, through the use of heat, onto polyester fabric from a paper carrier.

SuededA process in which fabric goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.

Back to Top


TanguisCotton developed and grown in the Canete's valley (south of Lima, Peru) and in the central coast of Peru The tanguis seeds produce a plant that has a 40% longer (between 29 mm and 33 mm) and thicker fiber that did not break easily and required little water

Taped SeamsA strip of fabric sewn to the seam of a garment to prevent distortion. In outerwear, taped seams aid in waterproofing.

TapingA design feature whereby a piece of fabric is used to cleanly cover a seam. The term is used when referring to shoulder-to-shoulder taping.

TaslanUsed mainly in outerwear garments, Taslan is a durable and water repellent nylon fabric with a slightly shiny surface.

Tencel®A fiber made from wood pulp. Tencel gives fabric a very soft, smooth and luxurious hand.

Terry VelourA pile weave cotton fabric with an uncut pile on one side and a cut pile on the reverse side. It has a soft, plush feel and is water absorbent. Commonly used for towels, robes and apparel.

Tricot LiningA lining material that can be made from natural or synthetic fibers and has a unique weave that allows it to be smooth on one side white sporting texture on the other.

Triple-Needle StitchedA finish commonly used on a sleeve or bottom hem that uses three needles to create parallel rows of visible stitching, giving the garment a cleaner, more finished look, as well as adding durability.

Tubular CollarA collar knit in a tube form, so it has no seams.

Tubular KnitFabric manufactured in a complete circle without seams.

Tuck StitchRefers to the look of the knit where some stitches are actually under the other stitches. Gives the shirt a waffle weave texture and look.

Tuck-In TailsA shirt constructed so the back hem is longer than the front. This aids in keeping the shirt tucked-in during normal activities.

TwillA fabric characterized by micro diagonal ribs producing a soft, smooth finish. Commonly used for casual woven shirts.

Twill TapeNarrow herringbone twill weave tape used as reinforcement at the stress areas - neck, shoulders, pockets - of a garment. It is also used as a design element, often inside plackets

Two PlyA yarn in which its thickness is made up of two layers or strands, adding durability and weight.

Two-Ply YarnTwo strands of thread are used to form the yarn that is woven into terry loops.

Back to Top


Underarm GrommetsSmall holes in the armpit area to allow breathability and air circulation.

UnstructuredA headwear term referring to a low profile cap with a naturally low sloping crown. No buckram has been added to the crown for structure.

UVA-Protective FabricA term used to refer to a fabric that resists the ability of ultraviolet rays to penetrate the fabric. Protects the fabric from fading and the wearer's skin from UV rays.

Back to Top


VentsAn opening in a garment which assists breathability and can aid in ease of decoration, allowing the garment to be hooped and embroidered with no visibility on the inside lining of the garment. Some vents are tacked down and are for fashion purposes only.

V-NeckA type of neckline that forms a "V" at the front of the neck. Commonly used in shirts, t shirts and sweaters.

V-PatchA section of material in a V shape that is sewn onto a garment directly under the collar, providing support against stretching the neck opening. Also a style detail.

Back to Top


Waffle WeaveA square pattern woven into a garment.

Water RepellantThe ability to resist penetration by water. Not as rigorous a standard as waterproofness. Water repellent fabrics cause water to bead up on their surfaces while allowing insensible perspiration to pass through. Water beads up and rolls off a water-repellent fabric.

Water ResistantA fabric's ability to resist moisture.

WaterproofAbility to keep water from penetrating but permits water vapor to pass through. There are over 200 fabrics of this type available today, offering a varied combination of waterproofness and water vapor permeability.

Welt CuffsCuffs on short sleeve garments formed from a single ply of ribbed fabric with a finished edge. Fabric for welt cuffs is knit in a bolder stitch construction than that of standard 1 x 1 ribs.

WickingDispersing or spreading of moisture or liquid through a given area by capillary action in a fabric.

Wind ResistantThe ability of a fabric to act against or oppose the penetration of wind or air, without being completely windproof.

Wind guardStrip of fabric sewn under or over the front zip or snap closure of an outerwear garment to protect against wind and moisture. Also referred to as a Wind flap

Wind shirtA typically water and wind resistant outerwear piece. Popular for golfers.

Wood tone ButtonsButtons that simulate a wood appearance.

WoolUsually associated with fiber or fabric made from the fleece of sheep or lamb. The term wool can also be applied to all animal hair fibers, including the hair of the Cashmere or Angora goat or the specialty hair fibers of the camel, alpaca, llama or vicuna.

WovenFabric constructed by the interlacing of two or more sets of yarns at right angles to each other. Woven fabrics are commonly used for dress shirts and camp shirts.

Wrinkle-FreeThe basic process for imparting the wrinkle free finish into fabric involves applying a resin into the fabric, drying and curing at extremely high temperatures to the desired dimension, scouring to remove any residual chemicals, and final drying. The application and curing of wrinkle-free may occur before or after the garments are produced. "Pre-cured wrinkle-free" means that the finish has been applied to the fabric before the garment has been manufactured. Because the "post-cure wrinkle-free" means that the finish has been applied after the garment has been manufactured and because the "post-cure wrinkle-free" process is set into the final, pressed garment, it is more popular.

Back to Top


Yarn DyedA term used when yarn is dyed prior to the weaving or knitting of the garment.

Y-NeckA neckline which has the shape of a "Y"

YokeA part of the garment fitted closely to the shoulders. Typically seen on the back as on a dress shirt, but may also be on the front, as on a Western style shirt.

Back to Top

bottom of page